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bass

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bass

Description

An athletic, predatory fish found in coastal areas around Europe, bass is prized by anglers and chefs. It has delicious white flesh and beautiful sivery scales with robust spiney fins and a powerful tail.  Bass have been over fished in European waters in recent years. Following Europe wide improvements in management stocks of bass are beginning to recover and this year for the first time in several years line caught bass is now again recommended by Cornwall Good Seafood Guide. 

Sustainability Overview

Bass stocks have historically been poorly studied and bass fishing has also been poorly managed.  Bass are highly mobile and migratory and therefore managment must be consistent across Europe. In 2016, after years of little or no managment ICES recommended that european catches should be zero. (this meant bass received default rating of 5) At that time extreme management measures were brought in resulting in a drop of fishing effort which is now well below sustainable levels.  The minimum landing size for bass  has been increased to 42cm across the whole of Europe. 
 
The latest report from ICES shows that bass stocks are beginning to show signs of recovery, with fishing effort now much lower and stocks now beggining to increase (althouth still not at sustainable levels). The best method of capture for this species is handline (line caught), as it is selective and has little impact on other species. Handline caught bass is now recommended by Cornwall Good Seafood Guide. Only buy fish labeled with a blue 'line-caught tag'. if its not labelled it may not have been line caught. For more info visit www.linecaught.org.uk . Avoid trawled bass and farmed bass imported from the Mediterranean. 
Updated July 2020

Sustainability ratings for this species

Handlining

Cornish vessels landing to Cornish Ports

The best choice. Handline fishermen use hooks and lines to catch premium quality fish. Undersized specimens can easily be returned to the sea unharmed. This is a very selective method and there is minimal effect on seabed habitats and by catch of unwanted species. look for line caught tagged fish.

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Gill Netting

Cornish Waters

Gill nets are lightweight nets made of nylon (monofilament) fishing line that are anchored to the seabed and are used to catch fish by entangling the gills.

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Demersal Trawl

Cornwall, ares VII e, f g and h

Demersal trawls are large nets that are pulled through the water with the bottom edge of the net touching the seabed. At each edge the net is pulled open by metal ‘trawl doors’. Sometimes referred to as Otter trawling

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How we rate fish

Cornwall Good Seafood Guide rates fish on sustainability using a scale of 1 to 5.

1, 2 and 3 are recommended, Fish to avoid are rated 5.

We use the system devised by the Marine Conservation Society (MCS) so our scores are comparable with the scores produced by MCS for the UK and fisheries from all around the world. For more information on scoring click here.

Biology

Bass are highly mobile and predatory fish that prey on smaller fish, worms and crustaceans. Bass are slow growing and females don’t reach sexual maturity until they are between 38cm and 42cm at and age of 6 to 7 years. Bass can live for up to 30 years and can reach 120- 130cm in length.   Bass spawn offshore during the winter and are known to aggregate in shoals that are targeted by mid–channel pair trawling teams.  Juvenile bass settle in estuaries where they take advantage of plentiful food (mainly mysid shrimps) and warm temperatures. Being slow to mature bass have a moderate biological vulnerably rating of 58% (Cheung et all 2005) so are vulnerable to over fishing. 
 

Stock Info

Over the past five years advice from International Convention for Exploration of the Sea (ICES) on the state of bass painted a grim picture of widespread over fishing of bass. Wide spread cuts in landings however are beginning to pay off and the latest advice shows that stocks are beginning to improve.  Whereas in previous years ICES recomended zero catch they are currently advising that in 2020 total removals of bass in Europe should be no more than 1800 tonnes (an incrase on last years recommendation)
Latest advice from ICES (Sept 2019) shows that fishing effort is now well below sustainable levels and that stocks are beginning to recover but they are still below sustainable levels (MSY).
 
Updated October 2019

Management

Historically there was no restriction on numbers of bass taken in European fisheries. In Cornwall for many years we have had a larger minimum size for bass 37.5mm than in many other areas of Europe. (EU minimum landing size was 36cm), but in 2016 emergency measures to help bass conservation have resulted in an increase across Europe to a minimum landing size of 42cm. 
The European Commission are currently looking in detail at bass and have brought in emergency measures that led to a ban on pair trawling for bass in EU waters.
 
Cornwall has several designated bass nursery areas within estuaries where national legislation prohibits taking of bass and fishing from a boat.  There are also several areas where gill netting is restricted – e.g the Runnelstone and the manacles bass box.
 
In 2018 Cornwall IFCA passed a byelaw banning the use of gill nets in Estuaries and rivers . As estuaries are known nursery areas for bass this will likely benefit bass stocks as well as other species. River and estuarine fishing nets byelaw
  
A cetacean by-catch code of conduct has been set up by Cornwall IFCA after a series of cetacean by catch incidents due to inshore winter bass netting in 2005. 
 
The EU have announced that there will be catch limits on all commercial bass fishing in 2020 and that recreational anglers will be restricted to two bass per day per angler. Details of these managment measures will be released via the CIFCA website
 
 

 

Capture Info

Bass are caught in significant numbers by recreational fishermen, and commercial fishermen. Numbers of bass being caught by anglers is not recorded which makes stock assesment very difficult. 
Handline and rod and line caught bass represent a large share of this. Gill nets are used to target bass in Coastal areas with in Cornwall.There are well documented issues of bycatch of dolphins and porpoises with this method of bass fishing as well as concerns with targetting brood stock during spawning season. 

References

ICES advice  Bass 2020
ICES advice Bass 2019
ICES advice Bass 2018
ICES advice Bass 2017
 MMO bass fishing guidelines 2017
ICES advice bass 2016
Seafish responsible sourcing guide, bass
Cornwall Bass Fishery, Edwin Derriman, Cornwall IFCA Jan 2013 
Project inshore pre assessment database 2013
Report of the Inter-Benchmark Protocol on New Species (Turbot and Sea bass ; IBPNew 2012). 1-5 October 2012 Copenhagen, Denmark
Cheung, W.W.L., T.J. Pitcher and D. Pauly, 2005. A fuzzy logic expert system to estimate intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities of marine fishes to fishing. Biol. Conserv. 124:97-111
 
 

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Cornwall Good Seafood Guide is underpinned by the Marine Conservation Society (MCS) Good Fish Guide. The first UK consumer guide to sustainable seafood. For more information visit www.fishonline.org

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